What Were The Agreements Of The Missile Crisis

The Kennedy administration had been publicly embarrassed by the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion in April 1961, launched under President John F. Kennedy by CIA forces formed by Cuban exiles. After that, former President Dwight Eisenhower Kennedy said that “the failure of the Bay of Pigs will encourage the Soviets to do something they would not otherwise do.” [3]:10 The half-invasion left first Soviet secretary Nikita Khrushchev and his advisers with the impression that Kennedy was undecided and, as one Soviet adviser wrote, “too young, intellectually, ill-prepared for decision-making in crisis situations… too smart and too weak.” [3] The secret U.S. operations against Cuba continued in 1961 with the unsuccessful Mongol operation. [4] On October 21, Kennedy met with EXCOMM members and other high-level consultants and considered two remaining options: an air strike primarily against Cuban missile bases or a maritime blockade of Cuba. [60] A total invasion was not the government`s first option. McNamara supported the maritime blockade as a strong but limited military action that left the United States under control. The term “blocking” was problematic. Under international law, a blockade is an act of war, but the Kennedy administration did not believe that the Soviets would be provoked by a simple blockade of the attack. [64] In addition, legal experts from the State Department and the Department of Justice concluded that a declaration of war could be avoided if another legal justification, based on the Rio Treaty for the Defence of the Western Hemisphere, was obtained by a resolution of two-thirds of the votes of members of the Organization of American States (OAS). [65] Third, from the point of view of the Soviet Union and Cuba, it seemed that the United States wanted to strengthen its presence in Cuba. Actions such as the attempt to expel Cuba from the Organization of American States,[13] to impose economic sanctions on the nation and conduct covert operations to contain communism and Cuba, were assumed that America was trying to invade Cuba.

To avoid this, the USSR would place missiles in Cuba and neutralize the threat. This would ultimately serve to protect Cuba from attack and to keep the country in the socialist bloc. [14] After long and difficult meetings, Kennedy decided to establish a maritime blockade or a network of ships around Cuba. The purpose of this “quarantine,” as he called it, was to prevent the Soviets from bringing more military supplies. He called for the removal of missiles already on the ground and the destruction of the sites. On October 22, President Kennedy spoke with the nation about the crisis in a televised address. The missile crisis was one of the scariest events of the Cold War. The 13-day showdown brought the world`s two superpowers to the brink of nuclear war. In the fall of 1962, the United States requested that the Soviets build new missile bases in …

Read EXCOMM then discussed the impact on the strategic balance of forces, both politically and militarily. The Joint Chiefs of Staff thought the missiles would seriously change the military balance, but McNamara contradicted. An additional 40, he argued, would do little to the overall strategic balance. The United States already had about 5,000 strategic warheads,[55]:261, but the Soviet Union had only 300.

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